美国《投票权法案》的历史时间表 分享到
The Voting Rights Act: A Historical Timeline 2021-08-0717130

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On August 6th, 1965, US president Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act into law.
1965年8月6日,美国总统林登·约翰逊(Lyndon Johnson)签署了选举权法案,使之成为法律。
This landmark civil rights law outlawed discriminatory voting practices.
这部里程碑式的民权法宣布歧视性投票行为为非法。
The bill was in response to decades of racial, discrimination at the polls in many southern states.
该法案是对南部许多州数十年来投票中的种族歧视的回应。
Here is a look at how the legislation came to be and what has happened to voting rights in the US since.
以下是这项立法是如何产生的,以及自那以来美国投票权发生了什么。
Following the civil war, the United States in 1870 ratified the 15th Amendment to the constitution, which black men the right to vote.
内战后,美国于1870年批准了宪法第15修正案,赋予黑人男子选举权。
In the ensuing decades, however, southern states used various means to keep blacks from voting,
然而,在接下来的几十年里,南方各州使用各种手段阻止黑人投票,
including violence, intimidation, economic retaliation and literacy tests.
包括暴力、恐吓、经济报复和识字测试。
Even blacks who were highly educated could fail literacy tests which were deliberately arbitrary and misleading.
即使是受过高等教育的黑人也可能不能通过故意武断和具有误导性的识字考试。
Southern officials also used poll taxes to deny voting rights to many blacks as well as poor whites.
南方官员还利用人头税剥夺了许多黑人和贫穷白人的投票权。
By the 1950s, a movement in the united States to combat discrimination was growing: the civil rights movement.
到了20世纪50年代,美国正在兴起一场反对歧视的运动:民权运动。
In 1964, Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act, outlying discrimination and ending segregation in public places.
1964年,约翰逊签署了民权法案,摒弃了歧视,结束了公共场所的种族隔离。
Despite its passage, discriminating around voting in the south continued.
尽管该法案获得通过,但在南方,围绕投票的歧视仍在继续。
A major turning point came on March 7, 1965 in Selma Alabama when peaceful marchers calling for equal voting rights were attacked by police.
1965年3月7日,阿拉巴马州塞尔玛出现了一个重大转折点,当时呼吁平等投票权的和平游行者遭到警察的袭击。
Footage of the violence shot the nation.
暴力镜头席卷全国。
Following the attack, Congress passed the Voting Rights and Johnson signed the bill.
袭击发生后,国会通过了投票权,约翰逊签署了该法案。
The legislation banned literacy tests, investigations into poll taxes and created federal oversight in areas with histories of discrimination.
这项立法禁止识字测试,禁止对人头税的调查,并在有歧视历史的地区建立了联邦监督。
Voter registration rates of blacks began to rise.
黑人的选民登记率开始上升。
Rates in the southern state of Mississippi alone rose by 53% in three years.
仅南部密西西比州的登记率就在三年内上涨了53%。
Later Voting Rights Bill provided protections for non-English speakers.
后来的投票权法案为非英语人士提供了保护。
The so-called motor voter law allowed people to register to vote at state motor vehicle agencies.
所谓的机动车投票人法允许人们在州机动车机构登记投票。
A major test to the US voting system came during the 2000 presidential election when the vote came down to several hundred disputed ballots.
对美国投票制度的一次重大考验发生在2000年总统选举期间,当时的投票结果是数百张有争议的选票。
The vote prompted US lawmakers to pass the host of election reforms that led some states to enact voter ID laws.
这次投票促使美国立法者通过了一系列选举改革,导致一些州颁布了选民身份证法。
Proponents said the ID laws prevented fraud while opponents said they disenfranchised voters, particularly minorities.
支持者说,身份证法防止了欺诈,而反对者说,他们剥夺了选民的权利,特别是少数族裔。
Voting laws were further changed in 2013 with the Supreme Court ruled that some measures of the Voting Rights Act were outdated,
2013年投票法进一步修改,最高法院裁定投票权法案的一些措施已经过时,
including the federal review of southern voting procedures.
包括对南部投票程序的联邦审查。
In response, many states increased voting restrictions, including adding more voter ID laws and limits to early voting.
作为回应,许多州增加了投票限制,包括增加更多的选民身份证法和对提前投票的限制。
By 2018, 23 states had enacted newly restrictive statewide voter laws.
截至2018年,已有23个州颁布了新的全州限制性选举法。
Controversy over election laws reached a peak during the 2020 presidential election
关于选举法的争议在2020年总统选举期间达到顶峰,
with the coronavirus pandemic led states to expand mailing voting.
因为疫情,各州扩大了邮寄投票。
President Donald Trump made uncorroborated claims that voting by mail was susceptible to fraud.
唐纳德·特朗普总统未经证实地声称,邮寄投票容易受到欺诈的影响。
When the vote count showed Joe Biden had won, Trump made the unsubstantiated claim that his defeat was the result of widespread fraud.
当计票结果显示乔·拜登获胜时,特朗普未经证实地声称,他的失败是广泛存在的欺诈行为的结果。
Lawmakers at the state and national level raced to again update election laws.
州和国家层面的立法者争先恐后地再次更新选举法。
Democrats passed a sweeping election reform bill in the US House of Representatives, including a further expansion of mailing voting.
民主党人在美国众议院通过了一项全面的选举改革法案,其中包括进一步扩大邮寄投票。
Republican lawmakers passed from tighter voting laws in several where they hold majorities.
共和党议员在他们占多数的几个州通过了更严格的投票法。
They say the measures are needed to prevent fraud, while opponents say theyre meant to make it harder to vote, particularly for people of color.
他们说,这些措施是为了防止欺诈,而反对者则表示,这些措施是为了让投票变得更加困难,特别是对于有色人种。
Recent restrictive voting laws in Arizona were challenged in court
亚利桑那州最近的限制性投票法在法庭上受到挑战。
with the federal appeals court ruling that they disproportionately affected minorities.
联邦上诉法院裁定,他们对少数族裔造成了不成比例的影响。
However, the supreme court upheld the new laws in a July ruling.
然而,最高法院在7月份的一项裁决中支持了新法律。
The conservative leaning court majority said that even though the Arizona law had some disparity and impact,
保守派倾向法院的多数人表示,尽管亚利桑那州的法律存在一些差异和影响,
it did not mean the voting system was unequal.
这并不意味着投票制度是不平等的。
The Arizona measures limit who can return early ballots for another person and stipulate that valid filed the wrong creation will not be counted.
亚利桑那州的措施限制了谁可以为另选一个人提前退还选票,并规定有效提交了错误的选票将不会被计算在内。
President Joe Biden, who is Democrat, called the Supreme Court decision harmful and said it undercuts the Voting Rights Act,
民主党总统乔·拜登称最高法院的决定是有害的,并表示这削弱了投票权法案,
while the republican national committee said it was a victory for election integrity.
而共和党全国委员会则表示,这是选举诚信的胜利。

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