在美国西部发现了十种被认为已经灭绝的苹果品种 分享到
Ten Kinds of Apples Thought to Have Died Out Found in US West 2020-04-2643379

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Two retirees in the United States have found ten apple varieties that many scientists thought had died out.
美国两名退休人员发现了十种被许多科学家认为已经灭绝的苹果品种。
The apples once identified as " lost " were among hundreds of fruits collected last autumn in Idaho and Washington state.The discovery represents the largest number ever found in a single season by a not-for-profit group called the Lost Apple Project.
这些一度被认定为“消失”的苹果是去年秋天在爱达荷州和华盛顿州收集的数百种水果中发现的。这一发现是非营利组织“消失的苹果项目”单季发现的最大数量。
The group has just two members: EJ Brandt and David Benscoter.The two learned about the results of their hard work from experts at the Temperate Orchard Conservancy in Oregon,where all the apples were sent for study.
该组织只有两名成员:EJ·布兰特和大卫·本斯科特。两人从俄勒冈州温带果园保护中心的专家那里得知了他们辛勤工作的结果,所有的苹果都被送到那里进行研究。
Brandt described the recent results as "almost unbelievable."He added, "I dont know how were going to keep up with that."
布兰特称最近的研究结果“几乎令人难以置信”。他还说,“我不知道我们以后怎样才能继续这一步伐。”
Each autumn, Brandt and Benscoter spend many hours searching for old — and often dying — apple trees across the Pacific Northwest.The two travel by truck, all-terrain vehicle and by foot.They collect hundreds of apples from fields where apple trees once grew.They find these orchards by using old maps, newspaper stories and sales records.
每年秋天,布兰特和本斯科特都要花很多时间寻找横跨太平洋西北部的老苹果树,这些老苹果树常常濒临死亡。两人乘坐卡车、越野车和徒步前行。他们从曾经种植过苹果树的田地里收集了数百个苹果。他们通过使用旧地图、报纸报道和销售记录找到这些果园。
By connecting names from those records with property maps,Brandt and Benscoter can find where an apple orchard might have been.They often find a few trees still growing there.The two carefully note the placement of each tree using global positioning system technology.They then tie a piece of plastic around the tress, collect some apples and ship them to the Oregon experts for identification.
布兰特和本斯科特通过将这些记录中的名字与地界图联系起来,就能找到一个苹果园可能所在的位置。他们经常发现那里还有几棵树在生长。两人使用全球定位系统技术仔细记录了每棵树的位置。然后,他们在树周围绑上一块塑料,收集一些苹果,并把它们运到俄勒冈州的专家那里进行鉴定。
In the winter, the two men return to the trees — often in bad weather — to take wood cuttings.These cuttings can be put, or "grafted," onto roots to make new trees.
在冬天,这两个人通常是在恶劣的天气下会回到树那去—去砍枝木。这些砍下来的枝叉可以嫁接到树根上,长成新的树。
The work is difficult.North America once had 17,000 named varieties of apples, but only about 4,500 are known to exist today.
这项工作十分艰难。北美曾经有17000有名称的被人类种植的苹果品种,但如今已知仅存在约4500个。
The Lost Apple Project believes settlers planted a few hundred varieties of apple in the Pacific Northwest alone.
“消失的苹果项目”认为,先驱移民者仅在太平洋西北角一带就种植了几百种苹果。
With the 10 latest varieties identified, Brandt and Benscoter have rediscovered a total of 23 varieties.The latest finds include the Sary Sinap, an ancient apple from Turkey;the Streaked Pippin, which may have grown in New York as early as 1744;and the Butter Sweet of Pennsylvania, a variety that was first noted in Illinois in 1901.
随着10个最新品种的鉴定,布兰特和本斯科特总共重新发现了23个品种。最新的发现包括来自土耳其的一种古老的苹果—萨利那普; Streaked Pippin,可能早在1744年就在纽约种植生长还有宾夕法尼亚的甜黄油,1901年在伊利诺斯州首次发现。
Botanists from the Temperate Orchard Society compared the collected apples to watercolor images created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the 1800s and early 1900s.They also studied written descriptions in old botany books, some of them more than 150 years old.
来自温带果园保护中心的植物学家将收集到的苹果与美国农业部在19世纪和20世纪初创造的水彩图像进行了比较。他们还研究了古老植物学书籍中的文字描述,其中一些已有150多年的历史。
One apple, the Gold Ridge, was hard to identify because the experts could not find any paintings or descriptions of it anywhere.Finally, botanist Joanie Cooper found it in a book written by a botanist who died in 1912.
其中一个叫金岭的苹果很难辨认,因为专家们在任何地方都找不到任何关于它的图画或描述。终于,植物学家乔安妮·库珀在1912年逝世的一位植物学家所写的一本书中找到了它。
"Its the luck of the draw," said Shaun Shepherd, another Temperate Orchard Conservancy botanist."And we learn more as we go along."
另一位温带果园保护中心的植物学家肖恩·谢泼德说,“这完全是走运了。”“我们在前进探索的过程中学到了更多。”
With spring returning to the Pacific Northwest, the Lost Apple Project will soon enter its busy season.As they wait, Brandt and Benscoter are busy grafting wood cuttings from the newly discovered "lost" apple trees onto root stocksand updating their records from the last season.
随着太平洋西北部进入春季,消失的苹果项目将很快进入繁忙的季节。在等待的过程中,布兰德和本斯科特正忙着把新发现的“消失”的苹果树的枝杈嫁接到砧木上,并更新上一季的记录。
Their nonprofit group took a major hit when they had to cancel two events:an annual fairwhere they sell newly grafted "lost" apple trees and a class on how to graft wood to grow a new apple tree.
当他们不得不取消两项活动时,这个非营利组织遭受了重大打击:其中一项是一年一度的集会,在集市上他们出售新嫁接的“消失”的苹果树,另一项是如何嫁接枝木来种植新苹果树的课程。
The cancellations were due to the new coronavirus.
取消的原因是因为新冠状病毒。
The two events raise much of the groups $10,000 yearly budget.The money goes toward travel costs, apple shipping and apple identification.
这两项活动为该组织每年1万美元的预算筹集了大部分资金。这笔钱将用于差旅费、苹果运费和苹果身份认证。
Benscoter said, "Two months ago, I was thinking: ‘This is going to be great.We’ve got 10 varieties that have been rediscovered,’ but ...right now, we couldnt pay our bills."
本斯科特说:“两个月前,我在想:‘这将会很棒。我们已经重新发现了10个品种,但是……现在,我们付不起费用了。”
Still, the self-described apple detectives get pleasure in their work.They often imagine the lives of the people who planted these trees.
尽管如此,这些自称苹果侦探的人还是从他们的工作中获得了乐趣。他们经常想象种这些树的人的生活。
"It was a hard life. I cant even imagine what they went through,but they survived and they went on with their lives," Brandt said."Its hard now, too, but its going to be OK. Its all a part of life."
“那是一种艰难的生活。我甚至无法想象他们经历了什么,但他们活了下来,继续他们的生活,”布兰特说。“现在也很艰难,但一切都会好起来的。这都是生活的一部分。”
Im John Russell.
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