科学家研究不同寻常的彗星 分享到
Scientists Study Unusual Comet 2020-04-3031929

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Scientists recently reported new details about the second interstellar object ever seen passing through our solar system.It is a comet called 2I/Borisov.
科学家们最近报告了第二颗穿过我们太阳系的星际天体的新细节。它是一颗叫做2I/鲍里索夫的彗星。
Comets are made up of frozen gases, rock and dust that orbit stars.The Reuters news agency likens them to dirty snowballs.Comets leave behind a mix of gas and dust in space as they move.
彗星是由冷冻的气体、岩石和绕星运转的尘土组成的。路透社把它们比作脏雪球。彗星移动时会在太空留下气体和尘土的混合物。
2I/Borisov is different from other comets, scientists have observed.Researchers reported on Monday that gas coming off 2I/Borisov had high levels of carbon monoxide -
科学家观察后发现,2I/鲍里索夫彗星与其他彗星不同。 周一研究员表示2I/鲍里索夫彗星留下的气体中一氧化碳含量很高-
far more than comets formed in our solar system.
远高于太阳系形成的彗星。
Carbon monoxide is poisonous to human beings.It forms as ice only in the coldest places.The presence of so much carbon monoxide, the researchers said,suggests 2I/Borisov was formed differently than comets from our solar system.It could have formed in a very cold part of its home star system or around a star cooler than the sun.
一氧化碳对人类有毒。只有在最冷的地方它才会形成冰。研究人员说,这么大量的一氧化碳表明2I/鲍里索夫彗星与我们太阳系彗星的形成方式不同。它可能是在其星系里非常冷的地方或者比太阳温度低的恒星附近形成。
Dennis Bodewits is a planetary scientist at Auburn University in the United States.He was the lead author of one of two 2I/Borisov studies.Both appear in the publication Nature Astronomy.
丹尼斯·波德维茨是美国奥本大学的行星科学家。有关2I/鲍里索夫彗星的两项研究中,波德维茨是其中一项的主笔。两项研究都发表在《自然-天文学》杂志上。
"We like to refer to 2I/Borisov as a snowman from a dark and cold place," Bodewits said.He noted that, "comets are left-over building blocks from the time of planet formation.For the first time,we have been able to measure the chemical composition of such a building block from another planetary system while it flew through our own solar system."
“我们喜欢把2I/鲍里索夫彗星比作从黑暗和寒冷地方来的雪人,”波德维茨说道。 他表示:“彗星就是行星在形成时剩下的建筑砖块。这是第一次,我们能够在来自其他行星体系的彗星飞过太阳系时测量它的化学成分。”
Amateur astronomer Gennady Borisov was the first person to identify the comet in August of 2019.The comet is thought to be about 1 kilometer wide.It has flown through interstellar space after being forced out from its original star system.
天文爱好者根纳季·鲍里索夫在2019年8月第一次发现了这颗彗星。这颗彗星大概有1千米宽。它在被迫离开原来的恒星系统后,就飞进了宇宙空间。
Bodewits said the comet was born long ago in a mix of gas and dust circling around a newly formed star.He said it came from a place that must have been rich in carbon monoxide.
博德维茨说,这颗彗星很久以前诞生于一颗新形成的恒星周围,混合着气体和尘埃。那个地方的一氧化碳含量肯定非常高。
That star may have been what is called an M-dwarf, far smaller and cooler than our sun.M-dwarf stars are the smallest kind of star known to scientists, Bodewits said.
那个行星可能是比太阳小很多又冷的多的一种M型红矮星。波德维茨透露,M型红矮星是科学家已知的最小的星星。
At first, researchers believed that 2I/Borisov was like comets made in our solar system.However, information gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope and an observatory in Chile showed differences.
起初,科学家认为2I/鲍里索夫彗星和我们太阳系形成的彗星一样。但是,哈勃空间望远镜和智利的一个天文台收集到的信息表明它们是不同的。
The researchers also found a large amount of hydrogen cyanide at levels similar to comets from our solar system.
研究人员还发现这颗彗星含有许多的氰化氢,含量和太阳系彗星相似。
Martin Cordiner was the lead author of the second study.He said, "This shows that 2I/Borisov is not a completely alien object,and confirms some similarity with our ‘normal’ comets,so the processes that shaped it are comparable to the way our own comets formed."
马丁·科迪纳是第二项研究的主笔。他说,“这表明了2I/鲍里索夫彗星并不是完全的外来星体,也证实了它和我们‘正常’彗星的一些相似之处,因此它和太阳系的彗星形成过程是相近的。”
Cordiner is an astrobiologist working for NASA, the U.S. space agency.He is with the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland.
科迪纳是美国国家航空航天局的一名天体生物学家。他现在在马里兰州戈达德航天中心工作。
The only other interstellar visitor discovered in our solar system was a rocky object called ‘Oumuamua’.It was found in 2017.
另外唯一一个在太阳系发现的星际游客是一个岩石天体,叫做‘奥陌陌’。它是在2017年被发现的。
Im John Russell.
约翰·罗素为您报道。

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