难民生活 分享到
Life as a Refugee 2021-07-3119307

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Imagine needing to permanently leave everything you have ever known and loved behind:
想象一下,你需要永久地将你熟悉和爱的一切抛掉:
your friends, your job, your belongings, your family, your home.
你的朋友、你的工作、你的财产、你的家人、你的家。
For millions of people around the world this is not imagination.
对于世界各地的数百万人来说,这不是想象。
It is reality.
这就是现实。
They are refugees.
他们是难民。
Signed at the United Nations in 1951 the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees sought to protect the millions of people
1951年在联合国签署的《关于难民地位的公约》旨在保护这数百万人,
dislocated amid the harsh aftermath of World War II.
他们在第二次世界大战的残酷后果中流离失所。
Since then the number of refugees worldwide has only increased.
从那时起,世界各地的难民数量只增不减。
Many more have fled their homes due to ethnic and religious persecution, gender and anti-LGBT discrimination or political repression.
还有更多的人由于种族和宗教迫害、性别和反同性恋歧视或政治压迫而逃离家园。
Today the global refugee population is higher than ever previously recorded.
今天,全球难民人口比以往任何时候都要多。
More than half of the worlds refugees come from just 4 countries.
世界上超过一半的难民来自4个国家,
Nearly 1 million Muslim Rohingya have fled Myanmar due to ethnic violence and government repression.
由于种族暴力和政府镇压,近100万穆斯林罗兴亚人逃离了缅甸。
Ongoing civil war and inter-ethnic conflict in South Sudan have displaced more than 2 million, mostly women and children.
南苏丹持续的内战和种族间冲突已经导致200多万人流离失所,其中大部分是妇女和儿童。
About 3.7 million refugees originate from Afghanistan,
大约370万难民来自阿富汗,
now in its 20th year of war between the Taliban and the internationally recognized government.
现在,塔利班和国际公认的政府之间的战争已进入第20个年头。
But by far the largest single refugee population is the roughly 6.6 million Syrians displaced by their countrys decade-long civil war.
但到目前为止,最大的难民人口是大约660万叙利亚人,他们因叙利亚长达十年的内战而流离失所。
So where do these refugees go?
那么这些难民去了哪里呢?
Some seek a better life in more prosperous countries like Germany and Sweden,
一些人在德国和瑞典等更繁荣的国家寻求更好的生活,
but most are simply trying to escape an immediate threat.
但大多数人只是试图逃避近在咫尺的威胁。
The most common destinations for refugees are places like Turkey, Pakistan, Uganda and Sudan,
最常见的难民目的地是土耳其、巴基斯坦、乌干达和苏丹,
which border the source countries and often suffer from economic and political instability of their own.
这些国家与他们自己的祖国接壤,也往往遭受自身经济和政治的不稳定。
The journey is rarely easy.
这段历程并不容易。
Refugees typically travel with few belongings or resources,
难民通常随身携带很少的物品或资源,
facing starvation, dehydration, extreme weather conditions and exploitation by human traffickers.
面临饥饿、脱水、极端天气条件和人贩子的剥削。
Then there are the obstacles refugees face at their destinations.
此外,难民在他们的目的地也阻碍重重。
Many countries try to prevent them from entering,
很多国家都试图阻止他们入境,
leading them to attempt dangerous routes on foot over difficult terrain or by sea on flimsy rafts, often with tragic consequences.
这导致他们试图徒步穿越困难的地形或通过海路乘坐脆弱的木筏走危险路线,往往会造成悲惨的后果。
Others who reach a border are herded into camps where they must wait months or years for their asylum claims to be processed.
其他到达边境的人被赶到营地,在那里他们必须等待几个月或几年才能处理他们的庇护申请。
They face crowded unsanitary conditions, food scarcity, poor infrastructure and vulnerability to violence and abuse.
他们面临拥挤、卫生条件差、粮食短缺、基础设施差以及容易遭受暴力和虐待的问题。
These bleak realities have become so common that its easy to forget they are in direct conflict with international law.
这些惨淡的现实已经变得如此普遍,以至于人们很容易忘记它们与国际法直接冲突。
Under the terms of the Convention signed by 146 countries,
根据146个国家签署的公约条款,
members are required to grant asylum seekers entry,
会员必须允许寻求庇护者入境,
help them to file their claims and provide access to public assistance, education and other rights enjoyed by citizens.
帮助他们提出诉求,并提供获得公共援助、教育和公民享有的其他权利的途径。
But there is no enforcement mechanism,
但是没有执行机制,
and many countries treat refugees as illegal immigrants, deporting some back to face the very dangers they fled.
许多国家将难民视为非法移民,将其遣返回去面对他们逃离的危险。
The problem goes beyond the legal boundaries.
这个问题超出了法律的界限。
Besides the 20 million recognized refugees and approximately 4.2 million asylum seekers who have applied for refugee status,
目前除了2000万得到承认的难民和大约420万申请难民身份的寻求庇护者之外,
there are 5.6 million displaced Palestinians who have no destination country to take them in.
有560万流离失所的巴勒斯坦人没有目的地国家接纳他们。
Millions more have left their homes due to rising sea levels, desertification and food insecurity driven by climate change.
由于海平面上升、荒漠化和气候变化导致的粮食不安全,还有数百万人背井离乡。
They are considered economic migrants with no refugee protections.
他们被认为是没有难民保护的经济移民。
The COVID-19 pandemic has also created a new wave of dislocations while devastating existing refugee camps.
疫情也造成了新一轮的流离失所,同时摧毁了现有难民营。
Globally some 45.7 million people are internally displaced within their home countries.
全球约有4570万人在本国境内流离失所。
With no status under international law,
在没有国际法地位的情况下,
they remain under the jurisdiction of their governments even when those governments have caused their displacement.
即使这些政府造成他们流离失所,他们仍然处于政府的管辖之下。

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