西班牙流感带给全世界的教训 分享到
The Lessons The Spanish Flu Taught The World 2020-04-0840536

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A few months ago, Sarah Henry, Chief Curator at the Museum of the City of New York,
几个月前,纽约城市博物馆的馆长Sarah Henry,
was preparing an exhibit about the deadly Spanish flu of 1918.
正在准备一场关于1918年致命的西班牙流感的展览。
Today that history is Henrys reality.
如今,这段历史就是Henry的现实
As New York City has become the center of the coronavirus outbreak in the US,
随着纽约市成为美国冠状病毒爆发的中心,
but Henry is careful about applying yesterdays lessons to COVID-19.
Henry小心翼翼地将昔日的教训应用到COVID-19疫情上。
I think we look back to history to see how weve coped in the past,
我认为我们应该回顾历史,看看我们过去是如何应对的,
to see if there are lessons to be drawn, but always carefully,
看看是否有值得吸取的教训,一定要小心,
because sometimes you take a lesson from one disease,
因为有时候你会从一种疾病中吸取教训,
you fly to another disease and it doesnt translate so well.
但又转向另一种疾病,又解释不好。
The 1918 pandemic killed by virus estimates from twenty to a hundred million people worldwide,
1918年的流感大流行时,据估计全世界有2000万到1亿人死于病毒,
more lives than the war.
比战争死亡人数还多。
In the US the first waves of the so-called Spanish influenza arrived with soldiers returning from Europe toward the end of the World War One.
在美国,第一波所谓的西班牙流感是在第一次世界大战快结束时,随着从欧洲回国的士兵而来的。
A ship docking in New York in the summer of 1918 brought the first cases.
1918年夏天,一艘停靠在纽约的轮船带来了第一批病例。
Since the war wasnt over, the city decided to keep the docks open isolating the sick on dry land.
由于战争尚未结束,该市决定继续开放码头,把病人隔离在陆地上。
They had a big debate about whether to close the schools,
他们就是否关闭学校进行了激烈的辩论,
and we just went through that debate here,
我们刚刚经历了这场辩论,
and the schools have just closed in New York City as we speak.
正如我们所说,纽约市的学校刚刚关闭。
In 1918 they decided not to close the schools,
1918年,他们决定不关闭学校,
because they felt that many of the students would be safer in school,
因为他们觉得很多学生在学校会更安全,
where there was more hygienic practice.
那里有更卫生的做法。
And of course they were looking at the tenement neighborhoods.
当然,他们也在寻找廉价公寓社区。
New Yorks theaters also stayed open 100 years ago, with no radio,TV or let alone internet.
100年前,纽约的剧院也一直在营业,没有收音机,没有电视,更不用说网络了。
Theaters were used to help spread information which included lectures on self-care.
剧院被用来帮助传播信息,包括关于自我护理的讲座。
Interestingly, the mortality rate in New York turned up being lower than in many American cities.
值得注意的是,纽约的死亡率比许多美国城市都要低。
Historians believe this was because authorities closed the subway after quickly recognizing the dangers of keeping it open.
历史学家认为,这是因为当局在迅速意识到保持地铁运营的危险后关闭了它。
Were looking at particularly the rush hours in the morning and the evening,
我们特别关注的是早上和晚上的高峰时间,
and thinking about how to get the subways less crowded.
考虑如何让地铁不那么拥挤。
So this was a kind of combination of mandatory and voluntary,
所以这是一种强制性和自愿性的结合,
and that they work together with the different business sectors,
他们与不同的商业部门合作,
to plan that different kinds of businesses would open at different times.
计划不同类型的企业在不同的时间开业。
What makes COVID-19 different from the Spanish flu,
COVID-19不同于西班牙流感,
is that the 1918 sickness was more dangerous for younger healthy adults,
就在于1918年的疾病对年轻健康的成年人更危险,
especially those who worked in the service industry.
尤其是那些在服务行业工作的人。
They were obliged to wear masks,
他们必须戴上口罩,
and those who didnt were fined and faced serious consequences.
而那些没有戴口罩的人会被罚款并面临严重的后果。
They authorized the police to give out tickets basically they made coughing and sneezing,
他们授权警察开罚单,基本上是咳嗽和打喷嚏,
a misdemeanor if you didnt cover, you didnt cover your mouth.
你不遮掩,你没有遮掩你的嘴,那就是轻罪。
The New York City hospitals were overwhelmed by the number of patients,
大量的病人让纽约市的医院不堪重负,
with the population of about 5 million people at the time.
当时的人口大约有500万。
More than 30,000 New Yorkers died during the pandemic.
纽约3万多人在流感大流行期间死亡。
It took the city two and a half months to finally conquer the virus.
这座城市花了两个半月的时间才最终战胜了这种病毒。
For Anna Nelson, New York, VOA news, Anna Rice.
VOA新闻,Anna Nelson撰稿, Anna Rice报道。

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